Cotton in the cockpit of his post-war Lockheed 12A G-AGTL. Note
the tear-drop side window which was invented by Cotton. Just
prior to the outbreak of WW2, one of Cotton's earlier Lockheeds
had so impressed his German hosts that they described it as
the "Kolossal Lockheed".
Frederick Sidney Cotton was born on 17th June 1894 at Gooranga near
Proserpine, Queensland, Australia. In 1900, the Cotton family moved
to a property near Brisbane. Sidney attended Southport Grammar School
in 1904 and six years later the entire family left for England where
it was intended that the children should further their education.
Shortly after arrival in England, young Sidney incurred the wrath
of his father by slipping away to Brooklands Aerodrome. However, his
father relented and Sidney visited Brooklands regularly thereafter.
During his stay in England, he built a six foot glider which he powered
with a small six cylinder petrol engine.
The family returned to their Queensland property "Hidden Vale"
in 1912. Sidney's father wished his son to follow in his footsteps
by becoming a station manager, but Sidney often upset his father with
his interest in machines. When he was staying on the property of a
friend, supposedly to gain experience in station management, he built
a motor car with the help of the station owner, a friend of his father.
The car was a rather innovative design and was later fitted with a
professionally made body.
An event which shook the world, the sinking of the "Lusitania",
incensed Sidney and he decided to go to England to join the forces.
He joined the Royal Naval Air Service and learned to fly in 1916.
His understanding of camouflage was demonstrated when he disguised
his Sopwith 11/2 Strutter bomber
by painting a large black dot aft of the cockpit. This modification,
together with the fitment of a gun-ring, made his bomber look like
the fighter version from a distance. In the winter of 1916, several
members of his squadron returned from a mission practically frozen.
Sidney Cotton, however, was not troubled by the cold, a fact which
he attributed to his oily overalls which he did not have time to change
out of in the scramble to get airborne. He concluded that the oil
sealed the fabric and trapped a layer of warm air next to the body.
He had his tailor make up a special suit of a light Burburry material
with a lining of thin fur and air-proof silk together with fur cuffs
and neck. He registered his design as the "Sidcot Suit"
which was worn extensively thereafter. Alcock and Brown wore such
suits during their epic crossing of the Atlantic. Also, when Manfred
von Richthofen was shot down, he was found to be wearing a suit of
Sidney Cotton first came into conflict with his military superiors
when it was decided by the Admiralty that a colleague of Cotton's
should carry out a long range Zeppelin patrol. There were two DH4
aircraft available, those belonging to Cotton and another pilot by
the name of Fane. Cotton's aircraft had been modified with an extra
water tank to alleviate overheating. Fane's aircraft was not modified
and it was he who the Admiralty decreed should carry out the patrol.
When Cotton protested that he should go, he was promptly told to obey
orders. The predictable result was that Fane's engine overheated and
he was forced down into the sea to be picked up three days later.
A flying boat sent to look for him was also lost. As a result, Sidney
Cotton resigned his commission.
In 1918, he returned to Australia to manage his father's apple orchard
in Tasmania. He surprised local orchardists by supplying the IXL canneries
with one thousand tons of apples in one season. Ever worried by wastage,
he found that he could make a very pleasant apple jelly from the peels
and cores. He later pioneered the development of dehydrated vegetable
soups. However, he soon became disenchanted with life on the land
and returned to England. Shortly after, he left for Newfoundland where
he planned to operate an aerial spotting service for the sealers.
The sealers, however, failed to appreciate the usefulness of such
a service and the venture folded. Cotton returned to England where
he ran a patent introduction service. He also followed the stock market
with considerable success. In the early 1930s, he participated in
the development and marketing of a revolutionary colour film which
sold under the name "Dufaycolor".
In September 1938, Germany was preparing for war and the need for
reconnaissance of German industrial centres became urgent. As Cotton
had regularly flown his own aircraft to Europe on business, it was
considered that his presence in Germany would be fairly inconspicuous.
It is not surprising therefore, that he was offered the job and accepted
it. Cotton requested a Lockheed 12A (G-AFKR) which was delivered in
January 1939. The operation was conducted initially with the help
of the French who provided an enormous aerial camera which necessitated
the installation of a large hatch in the aircraft for jettisoning
the camera should the purpose of the flights be discovered. It was
during one of these flights that Cotton discovered the demisting principle
when he found that frost could be removed from the windshield by leaving
one of the cockpit windows open slightly. Such was the design of the
Lockheed 12A that the airstream drew warm air from the cockpit and
across the windshield, thus causing the ice to melt. The limitations
of the French supplied camera soon became apparent and Cotton designed
a frame to carry three Air Force F.24 aerial cameras which were not
only more efficient but considerably smaller. It was intended that
the cameras and associated equipment be stored in specially decorated
suitcases when not in use. Cotton also resolved to use Leica film
and fine-grain developer to improve the picture quality. In April
1939, a lengthy series of flights took place over Sicily and North
Africa. Cotton's good relations with Customs officials, together with
a bit of subterfuge, ensured that the elaborately decorated suitcases
escaped inspection. After this series of flights, G-AFKR was handed
over to the French, largely due to Cotton's dissatisfaction with their
A second Lockheed 12A (G-AFTL) arrived in May 1939. The aircraft was
modified with two extra fuel tanks, each of 70 gallons capacity, which
were fitted in the cabin. This modification increased its range from
700 to 1600 miles. Although Lockheed agreed that the extra fuel load
was within the capabilities of the aircraft, the authorities ruled
that fuel uplifted should be well below the capacity available. Cotton
therefore resolved that the tanks would be inadvertently filled to
capacity when required. On his first take-off with a fuel overload,
Cotton could not resist flying around the control tower and waving
to its occupants. In order to achieve downwards visibility, Cotton
invented the teardrop window which he fitted in place of the Lockheed's
side cockpit window. The Triplex company manufactured about 100,000
of these windows during the war but Cotton claimed no royalties as
they were fitted only to military aircraft. One day at Heston, Cotton
was watching the departure of the Maharajah of Jodhpur in his private
aircraft, another Lockheed 12A G-AFXP, when he noticed that the aircraft
disappeared from view shortly after take-off. The aircraft was painted
a pale duck egg green colour and Cotton concluded that it had blended
with the sky. Cotton requested the Titanine Dope Company to make up
a similar paint, slightly lighter in hue, and registered it as "Camotint".
This paint was then applied to Cotton's second Lockheed 12A G-AFTL.
In July 1939, Cotton flew the aircraft to Germany at the invitation
of a business associate, Herr Schoene, who was involved with the marketing
of "Dufaycolor" film in Germany. Schoene had many influential
friends, one of whom was Goering. For the purpose of photographing
German industrial installations en route, Cotton had two Leica cameras
(ironically of German manufacture!) fitted behind close-fitting sliding
panels under the wings. The sliding panels were powered by a small
electric motor controlled by a switch hidden under the pilot's seat.
The cameras were capable of taking 250 exposures each. In addition
to the Leicas in the wings, Cotton carried two others hidden in the
cabin. Cotton flew back to Heston with the photos and promptly returned
to Germany to attend a flying rally at Frankfurt at the invitation
of the Commandant of Tempelhof Airport. Cotton's "Kolossal Lockheed"
evoked considerable interest at the meeting and the Commandant requested
a local flight. Cotton had been asked to obtain photos of Mannheim
so he explained to the Commandant that a favourite aunt of his had
enthused about the beautiful scenery along the Rhine at Mannheim.
The flight was duly authorised and Cotton got his photos.
With preparations for war proceeding, it was reported by close associates
of Goering that he believed that Britain would not go to war over
the invasion of Poland. Cotton was of the belief that war might be
averted if Goering could be impressed with Britain's willingness to
fight. To this end, he offered to fly Goering to England for discussions.
Preparations were well under way when war was imminent and Cotton
was forced to leave Germany. In fact, Cotton's Lockheed 12A G-AFTL
was the last civilian aircraft to leave Germany before hostilities
After the outbreak of war, Cotton continued with aerial photography
at the request of the military whose own attempts had proved unsuccessful.
The unit, which was later to be called cryptically No. 2 Camouflage
Unit, initially operated Blenheims which were later replaced by Spitfires,
both types being specially modified for high altitude photography.
During the war, Cotton had an idea which led to the development of
the Turbinlite Havoc. The Havoc was equipped with early radar together
with a powerful Helmore Turbinlite searchlight in the nose. Accompanied
by several fighter aircraft, the Havoc would intercept enemy aircraft
at night using the radar equipment. At the appropriate instant, the
searchlight would illuminate the target for the fighters. With improvements
in radar design, smaller units became available for installation in
fighter aircraft and development of the Turbinlite Havoc was terminated.
Cotton's dislike of "red tape", plus his desire to get things
done, led to a high level plot to discredit him. Frustrated by bureaucracy
and inter-service rivalries, Cotton left the RAF. Subsequently, he
mounted an airlift operation on behalf of the Muslim state of Hyderabad
using five Lancastrians. In the early 1950s, in a showing of remarkable
foresight, Cotton had business dealings with Saudi Arabia in an attempt
to obtain oil concessions for Australia. Post-war, Cotton used the
Lockheed 12A G-AGTL "Caprice".
Sidney Cotton, who had been awarded an OBE in 1941, died in 1969.
preceding biography is a precis of "Aviator Extraordinary"
- the Sidney Cotton Story as told to Ralph Barker (Chatto & Windus,
London 1969. SBN 7011 1334 0). This precis was prepared in 1975 by
Ron Cuskelly who now finds that he can't improve on it by much! The
above photo, together with another of G-AGTL, have been taken from
the book with due credit to the photographer J. Feneyrol.
it is policy to include on this site only Lockheed aeroplanes which
took up an Australian identity, an exception has been made in the
case of these aeroplanes as they were owned and made famous to varying
degrees by an Australian identity, Sidney Cotton. Several other Lockheed
12As which were owned briefly by Cotton's companies Aeronautical and
Industrial Research Corp and Aeronautical Research and Sales Corp
are listed separately.
COTTON'S KOLOSSAL LOCKHEEDS